The Model and the Artist Discussion

  1. Introduction – Madison
    1. “Every prominent scholar of nineteenth-century art planted himself in front of her, writing paraphernalia at hand.  All thought their engagement disinterested, but it wasn’t. They circled her from above, close up, on top.  What did they mean to do with all those words? Describe her? Analyze her? Situate her? Or: Possess her? Control her? Silence her?” – page 15
      1. i.      What were these other writer’s intentions with their research of Victorine Meurent?
      2. ii.      What was Eunice Lipton intention for researching Victorine Meurent?
  1. Alias Olympia
    1. Summary:  This book was written to find out who Victorine Meurent really was and to prove that she was not the drunkard and failure that many scholars have portrayed her as.  It highlighted the art historian Eunice Lipton’s journey to find Meurent and wove the search around her personal life.
    2. Discussion Questions: – Ann
      1. i.      Do you think the images of Victorine Meurent painted by Manet and others were true depictions of her life?
      2. ii.      What image did Manet portray of Victorine Meurent versus the image portrayed by Norbert Goeneutte?
        1. Refer to page 104-108
        2. Found no images
      3. iii.      What category of model would Victorine Meurent fall into, modèle de profession, modèle à l’occasion, or modèle privilégié?
        1. Both the professional and occasion models
        2. She was made to be someone else so she is not a proprietary model.
    3. List of Images:
      1. i.      Olympia
        1. Manet
        2. 1863-1865
        3. Musée d’Orsay
      2. ii.      Dejeuner sur l’herbe (Luncheon on the Grass)
        1. Manet
        2. 1863
        3. Musée d’Orsay
  1. iii.      Madoiselle Victorine in the Costume of an Espada
    1. Manet
    2. 1862
    3. Metropolitan Museum of Art
    4. Professional Model
    5. iv.      Street Singer
      1. Manet
      2. 1862
      3. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston
      4. v.      Woman with a Parrot
        1. Manet
        2. 1866
        3. Metropolitan Museum of Art
      5. vi.      Portrait of Victorine Meurent
        1. Manet
        2. 1862
        3. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston
      6. vii.      Palm Sunday
        1. Victorine-Louise Meurent
        2. 1880s ?
        3. Municipal Museum of Art and History, Colombes
        4. Only surviving work by Meurent
  1. Realist Quandaries Article
    1. Summary: This article shows the difference between the three types of models: modèles de profession, modèles à l’occasion, and modèles privilégiés and how artists in the late 19th century transitioned from using professional models to the using non professional models to gain a more dynamic painting.  It states that artists in the 1860s moved away from professional models to make their paintings look less posed and more true to life.
      1. i.      modèles de profession – professional model, the artist stages or poses the model how they want, they are paid for their services.
      2. ii.      modèles à l’occasion – occasional model or irregular model, they knew the artist (friends and family) and were not paid by the hour, they were also posed and generally depicted how the artist wanted
      3. iii.      modèles privilégiés – proprietary model, the model retains their say in how the work will be done,  they are often the people that commissioned the portraits.  They retain their identity.
    2. Discussion Questions: – Amy
      1. i.      Why did the use of models shift from professional models to occasion and proprietary models?
        1. Why did Manet switch?
      2. ii.      What issues did female models face?
        1. Ruin of Reputation
          1. How to prevent it?
          2. Example:
            1. i.      “Dickens agreed, and Kate Dickens, …went to Millais’s studio, accompanied by an elderly friend of the family, pose …” page 241 of article
            2. ii.      Berthe Morisot example
            3. iii.      Young woman example who rejected Manet on the street
            4. Modèle  de femme – clandestine prostitute, display their bodies were essential to their work in the sex trade
              1. Could be portrayed as this
              2. Location of the work being done
                1. for a middle-class woman, posing in a garden was less fraught than posing in an artist’s studio” page 260 of article


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